642,370 Paralysed in INDIA by NPAFP, 491,704 more than expected!

After India was declared polio free in 2012, and ceased OPV programme: Rate of NPAFP Paralysis DECREASED

Having researched #Polio in #India I have now all the correct figures as per World Health Organisation and GPEI, 100’s of articles and evidence in NCBI, Lancet, CLEARLY the effects of one of 6 – Newly designed OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine) by WHO, now withdrawn.

Coincides with increase in Paralysis via NPAPF and APF caused by Wild Polio Virus in 642,370 people from 2000 to 2017

If IPV use had continued Wild Polio (Natural cause) would have been approx 2000 cases.

With guidance from WHO – Financed with Public Money via Governments and the Organisations and Charities WHO Funds WHO

NPAFP Previously Known as VAPP

  • AFP means Acute Flaccid Paralysis
  • WVP mean’s Wild Polio Virus
  • NPAFP means (Not Caused by Wild Polio) NON POLIO ACUTE FLACCID PARALYSIS
  • VAPP – Vaccine Associated Paralytic Polio – Vaccinated pass to contacts
  • cVDPVs – Circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses
  • IPV means Injected Polio VaccineNOT Live – IPV cures ALL three types of poliovirus – 1955 – Zero VAPP or NPAFP incident
  • OPV means Oral Polio Vaccine 8 VARIANTS LIVE AND NOT LIVE:
  • tOPV means Trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) THE ORIGINAL – 1950s Eradicating Polio
  • mOPV – Monovalent oral poliovirus vaccine (mOPV) 1955 –
  • mPOV1 – Monovalent OPVs for type 1 (mOPV1)
  • mOPV3 – Monovalent for type 3 (mOPV3) poliovirus “licensed again in 2005, thanks to successful action taken by the GPEI”
  • nOPV2 – Novel oral polio vaccine type 2 (nOPV2)
  • bOPV – Bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV)
  • tOPV Trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) withdrawn 2016

India Pediatric Society recommend COMPLETE REMOVAL OF OPV IN 2003, The potency of OPV was changed that year to 5 times more Viral content resulting in 5 times more NPAFP cases 2004, from 5417 in 2002 to 26586 Cases in 2004 of which only 63 were (APF) wild Polio. See Fig and 1 and 2 below, a coincidence, as multiple doses of OPV were administered, the cases increased.

India Polio Timeline

Graph Of UP (Utter Pradesh)
Doses V NPAFP V Cumulative Doses
Graph Of Bihar
Doses V NPAFP V Cumulative Doses

VAPP disappeared and became NAFP not included in Stats?

Jagannath Chatterjee researches and writes on vaccines after having suffered an adverse reaction in 1979, when he was 17

The definition of polio has been changed repeatedly since the programme was launched, thus automatically leading to a drastic fall in the number of cases

https://www.downtoearth.org.in/blog/indias-poliofree-status-a-cruel-joke-43847

https://www.downtoearth.org.in/blog/indias-poliofree-status-a-cruel-joke-43847

Wiki

India reduced the use of OPV and reduced the cases of NPEV causing Paralysis

INIDA HAD a 1 in 100,000 case of naturally caused AFP (Acute Flaccid Paralysis). In 2018 NCBI states “

A total of 640,000 children developed NPAFP in the years 2000–2017, suggesting that there were an additional 491,000 paralyzed children above our expected numbers for children with NPAFP.

Splitting Hairs: OPV causes NPEV which cases NPAF V AFP

“OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine) repeatedly given causes a Virus in the Gut… which causes Parlaysis”

The correspondent writes that the incidence of post vaccination paralysis in the literature is about one in 2–3 million doses, and that it was seen in those given the vaccine for the first time. Therefore, they say that there is no biological plausibility for the conclusion on correlation as described by us.

NEW INDIAN EXPRESS – Misleading Information

This appears to be a straw man argument. We did not say that the NP AFP reported in our paper were cases of vaccine induced paralysis. Non-polio AFP, by its very definition, excludes polio vaccine induced

The correspondent claims that non-polio entroviruses (NPEV) causing polio like paralysis was unaccounted for in our paper.This is not correct. It seems that the correspondent has not read our paper carefully. I quote from the paper:“We speculate that repeated doses of live vaccine virus delivered to the intestine may colonize the gut and alter the viral microbiome of the intestine, and this can result in strain shifts of enteropathogens. It is possible that new neurotropic enteroviruses colonizing the gut may induce paralysis”.

1964 – PARALYTIC DISEASE ASSOCIATED TO POLIO

NCBI

1967 Poliomyelitis associated with type 2 virus. Paralytic disease in the father of a recently immunized child

NCBI

1971 Polio Vaccinated Child – Thymus Abnormality

Study from 1971

1986 Polio Vaccine increased Risk by 25 times

NCBI

1988 WHO Takeover from WHA Polio Commitment

1990 – WHO RELEASE NEW VARIANT FINDINGS

Immunogenicity of oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) against variants of wild poliovirus type 3 – Page 1
Immunogenicity of oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) against variants of wild poliovirus type 3 – Page 2

Immunogenicity of oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) against variants of wild poliovirus type 3 – Page 3
Immunogenicity of oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) against variants of wild poliovirus type 3 -Page 4

1994 – 2012 – UNICEF – “History of Polio virus in India

  • 1994 Pilot begins in Delhi
  • 1995- India launches immunisation dayA total of 88 million children immunized.
  • 1997 The National Polio Surveillance Project (NPSP) is established for poliovirus surveillance. A collaboration of World Health Organization and the Government of India, NPSP recruits 57 surveillance medical officers (SMOs).
  • 1999 Type 2 poliovirus eradicated. Last global case of type 2 polio is reported in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh. House-to-house 159 million immunised. The India Expert Advisory Group for polio (IEAG) constituted.
  • 2001 UNICEF establishes the Social Mobilization Network (SMNet) in Uttar Pradesh to mobilize community for polio immunisation. Amitabh Bachchan becomes UNICEF Brand Ambassador for Polio.
  • 2002 Taking over from private donors, the Government of India takes the lead role in financing polio eradication activities in the country using its own resources. WHO-NPSP expands network. The over 200 surveillance medical officers
  • 2002 – Rotary International hosts first Polio Summit in India.
  • 2003 – The under-served strategy is introduced as part of communication efforts in Uttar Pradesh to reach out to and get support of marginalized sections of the society for polio eradication.
  • 2003 – UNICEF expands the Social Mobilization Network to Bihar.
  • 2004 Poliovirus surveillance increases in sensitivity. The programme is now able to rapidly detect poliovirus transmission anywhere in the INDIA.
  • 2004 Rotary International hosts second Polio Summit in India to accelerate Polio eradication.
  • 2005 More effective monovalent oral polio vaccines (mOPV), tackling either type 1 or type 3 wild poliovirus, introduced. Social mobilization intensifies, with enhanced involvement of religious leaders, Muslim institutions, mosques and madrasas. Influencers from within the community are identified and assigned to vaccination teams to enhance acceptance of polio vaccine.
  • 2006 Enumeration, vaccination and tracking of newborns begins in UP and Bihar.
  • 2007 Rotary International forms Ulemas’ Committee in UP to enhance Muslim community support.
  • 2007 Accelerated immunization rounds take place almost monthly in polio-endemic states of UP and Bihar, using efficacious mOPVs. Migrant strategy introduced. People moving out of the endemic states with families are identified and immunized in Punjab, Gujarat, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Delhi.
  • 2008 WHO-NPSP further expands –- 333 surveillance medical officers on the ground cover all parts of India.
  • 2009 107 Block Plan is introduced in UP and Bihar. Underlying factors for polio are targeted: routine immunization, sanitation, diarrhea management and exclusive breastfeeding. Focus on migrant populations in brick kilns, construction sites, slums and nomadic settlements. Rotary pledges US$200 million against Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation’s pledge of US$355 million.
  • 2010 – Bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV), which tackles both type 1 and 3 wild poliovirus serotypes concurrently, introduced in India.
  • 2010 – The Government of India, through the India Expert Advisory Group on polio eradication, recommends responding to each case of polio as a public health emergency.
  • 2011 – Aggressive response to the lone case of polio in Howrah, West Bengal. A large-scale mop-up immunization activity is launched within seven days of notification All States and Union Territories prepare Emergency Preparedness and Response Plans (EPRPs) to respond to any case of wild poliovirus as a public health emergency.
  • 2012 – India removed from the list of polio endemic countries after completing a year without reporting any case of polio in January, a major milestone in the history of polio eradication.

1995 – START OF INTENSIVE NEW VARIANT OPV

1995

1998 – WHO’s Flawed immunisation policies in India led to polio paralysis

the introduction of diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis (DTP) vaccine without adequately protecting infants from circulating wild polioviruses increased the risk of provocation poliomyelitis, a phenomenon in which an injection given to a child with silent poliovirus infection can trigger paralysis in the injected limb.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9599049/

1998 Neurologic complications associated with oral poliovirus vaccine and genomic variability of the vaccine strains after multiplication in humans

The oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has been effectively used in the reduction and control of poliomyelitis cases on the planet. Despite several advantages of using the attenuated OPV strains, the rare occurrence of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases in vaccine recipients and their susceptible contacts is a disadvantage.

1999 RiSk of OPV VAPP –

World Health Organization. Global eradication of poliomyelitis by the year 2000. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1988 (World Health Assembly Resolution WHA41.28).

2001- ONE IPV Vaccine Better than 8 OPV- Kerala State Institute of Virology and Infectious Diseases

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11763328/

2001

2001

2002

2004 – 10 Doses No Protection VACCINE CAUSES VAPPP

2004 – 130 Confirmed Cases Of Wild Polio Virus (AFP)

Corrective measures have been successful. During 2004, 130 confirmed cases of wild poliovirus have been reported from 26 districts in India [10], 78 from west Uttar Pradesh, 39 from Bihar, 3 from Maharashtra, 2 each from Delhi, Haryana and West Bengal and a single case from Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Uttaranchal.

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(07)60531-5/fulltext

2005 – Polio Nearly Eradicated

2006 – 45 Wild Polio Deaths, 33 Children under 2

45 deaths occurred among 676 WPV cases in India, yielding a CFR of 6.7%. By comparison, in 2002, there were 66 deaths among 1600 reported WPV cases (CFR, 4.2%) and during 2002-2005, CFR was 1.5%-5.2%. All 45 deaths were among 644 (95%) WPV cases in children aged <5 years (CFR, 7.0%). Among those who died, 33 (73%) were children aged <2 years (CFR, 7.1%).

2007 – LANCET – Report on Monovalent Success?

Lancet

2007 – LANCET COMPLAINT – “Decreased cases in Polio – but increased NAPF”

We are shocked and dismayed that
The Lancet should have published
the paper on the protective efficacy
of monovalent oral type 1 poliovirus
vaccine by Nicholas Grassly
and colleagues (April 21, p 1356),’ having
overlooked the serious ethical issues
involved.
The article describes how the international oversight body polio eradication recommended the rapid development, licensing, and introduction of a new monovalent type 1 oral vaccine for India. WHO (and its organ, the National Polio
Surveillance Project [NPSP], from
where some of the authorship of this
article was drawn) was party to this
accelerated introduction of the new
vaccine in the country.

What introduced, according to this article,
was a new vaccine that was five times
more potent than previous vaccines,
presumably also with increased likelihood of adverse affects No informed consent was taken, nor was the public told that the vaccine was experimental. Efforts were made to give the impression that the
monovalent vaccine was not new but
was just the monovalent vaccine used
in the 1960s, before the introduction
of the trivalent vaccine.

In the absence of proper postvaccination surveillance of adverse effects we have to rely on indirect evidence of possible adverse effects available from the NPSP.

Data from Uttar Pradesh (where Grassly and colleagues show improved vaccine efficacy) show an increase in the incidence of non-polio acute flaccid paralysis since the introduction of the monovalent vaccine. LANCET

3

From: St Stephens Hospital, Delhi 110054, India JP);
Public Report on Health, Council for Social
Development, 53 Lodhi Estate, New Delhi, India
(CS); and Centre for Social Medicine and
Community Health, Jawaharlal Nehru University,
New Delhi, India (DB)

2008 – Four added to Polio Hall Of Fame

The elimination of polio in most nations — and the continued work to eradicate the crippling disease — has been moved forward since 1988 when Rotary International, the World Health Organization, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and UNICEF joined forces.

2009 – Why polio has not been eradicated in India despite many remedial interventions?

Indian Paediatric Society

“We can justify the use of OPV to get rid of wild polioviruses, but not when they are no longer prevalent. Since the purpose of polio eradication is to ensure that no child should ever get polio, the continued occurrence of vaccine-virus-polio beyond the time when wild viruses cease to circulate is counter-productive, unnecessary, unethical and scientifically ‘defeatist’”

Indian Paediatric Society
The Plan

2010 – WHO REVIEW OPV

2013

2014 – BBC- India Eradicates Polio lady Case On 2009

2015 India Launches IPV (inactivated Polio Vaccine)

Sanofi IPV Produced in France Formulated in India

2016

Pakistan Today

Gates Foundation

2005 – WHO Donates $75 Million

$75 Million Funding
Disappearing Links!!

UN “BILL GATES DONATES $10Million” to Egypt in 2005

2011 UK DOUBLE BMGF DONATION FOR 10 Years

GATES FOUNDATION – UK Donates $4 Billion in 10 Years Doubling Donation in 2011 from $20 Million per Year

2016 REUTER article

Reuters

2019 – Using three IPV doses as part of a IPV-OPV schedule does not appear to be better than two IPV doses for protective humoral response.

WHO reviewed 8 dosage OPV programme DRAMATICALLY changing to 1 OPV and 2 IPV, author suggests OPV can be dismissed.

Correlation between Non-Polio Acute Flaccid
Paralysis Rates with Pulse Polio Frequency in India

predominant vaccine used in the fight to eradicate polio. There are different types of oral poliovirus vaccine, which may contain one, a combination of two, or all three different serotypes of attenuated vaccine. Each has their own advantages and disadvantages over the others.

GPEI – OWNED BY WHO

GPEI
GPEI

WHO FUNDS WHO

Abbreviations

VAPP

NPAFP

cVDPVc

cVDPV1

cVDPV2

Thirty-one ongoing and new cVDPV type 2 (cVDPV2) outbreaks were documented during July 2019–February 2020; nine outbreaks spread internationally. New cVDPV2 outbreaks were often linked to poor coverage with monovalent Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) type 2 during outbreak response campaigns.

IPV – Inactivated poliovirus vaccine

Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) was developed in 1955 by Dr Jonas Salk. Also called the Salk vaccine IPV consists of inactivated (killed) poliovirus strains of all three poliovirus types. IPV is given by intramuscular or intradermal injection and needs to be administered by a trained health worker. (IVP – GPEI typo?) IPV produces antibodies in the blood to all three types of poliovirus. In the event of infection, these antibodies prevent the spread of the virus to the central nervous system and protect against paralysis.

Advantages

  • As IPV is not a ‘live’ vaccine, it carries no risk of VAPP.
  • IPV triggers an excellent protective immune response in most people.

An increasing number of industrialized, polio-free countries are using IPV as the vaccine of choice. This is because the risk of paralytic polio associated with continued routine use of OPV is deemed greater than the risk of imported wild virus.

https://polioeradication.org/polio-today/polio-prevention/the-vaccines/ipv/

OPV Oral poliovirus vaccine CLARIFICATION – 5 Types

OPV
https://polioeradication.org/polio-today/polio-prevention/the-vaccines/opv/
  • Trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV)
  • Monovalent oral poliovirus vaccine (mOPV)
  • Novel oral polio vaccine type 2 (nOPV2)
  • Bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV)
  • Trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) withdrawn 2016

OPV

Oral poliovirus vaccine The attenuated poliovirus(es) contained in OPV are able to replicate effectively in the intestine, but around 10,000 times less able to enter the central nervous system than the wild virus. This enables individuals to mount an immune response against the virus. Virtually all countries which have eradicated polio used OPV to interrupt person to person transmission of the virus.

Monovalent oral poliovirus vaccine (mOPV)

Prior to the development of tOPV, monovalent OPVs (mOPVs) were developed in the early 1950s, but largely dropped out of use upon the adoption of tOPV. It was not available at the time of the founding of GPEI in 1988. Monovalent oral polio vaccines confer immunity to just one of the three serotypes of OPV. They are more successful in conferring immunity to the serotype targeted than tOPV, but do not provide protection to the other two types.

Monovalent OPVs for type 1 (mOPV1) and type 3 (mOPV3) poliovirus were licensed again in 2005, thanks to successful action taken by the GPEI. They elicit the best immune response against the serotype they target of all the vaccines.

Monovalent OPV type 2 (mOPV2) has been stockpiled in the event of a cVDPV2 outbreak.

Novel oral polio vaccine type 2 (nOPV2)

To better address the evolving risk of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2), GPEI partners are working to deploy an additional innovative tool – novel oral polio vaccine type 2 (nOPV2). Read more.

Bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV)

Following April 2016, the trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine was replaced with the bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV) in routine immunization around the world. Bivalent OPV contains only attenuated virus of serotypes 1 and 3, in the same number as in the trivalent vaccine.

Bivalent OPV elicits a better immune response against poliovirus types 1 and 3 than trivalent OPV, but does not give immunity against serotype 2. As well as in routine immunization, bOPV will be used for outbreak response against poliovirus types 1 and 3 outbreaks.

Trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV)

Prior to April 2016, the trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) was the predominant vaccine used for routine immunization against poliovirus. Developed in the 1950s by Albert Sabin, tOPV consists of a mixture of live, attenuated polioviruses of all three serotypes. Also called the ‘Sabin vaccine’, tOPV is inexpensive and effective, and offers long lasting protection to all three serotypes of poliovirus.

The trivalent vaccine was withdrawn in April 2016 and replaced with the bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV), which contains only attenuated virus of types 1 and 3. This is because continued use of tOPV threatened to continue seeding new type 2 circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV2), despite the wild type 2 virus being eradicated in 1999.

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